By juxtaposing these two characters, Lee proves that justice and compassion reach beyond the boundary of color and human prejudices. The novel's title is a metaphor for both men, each of whom is a mockingbird. In this case however, one mockingbird is shot, the other is forced to kill. Boo and Tom are handicapped men.
In this article, however, social movements are defined as socially shared demands for change in some aspect of the social order.
This definition emphasizes the part played by social movements in the development of social change an aspect that no student of them has been able to ignore.
New arrangements are advocated; but the demand for change meets with resistance, and old habits and arrangements are maintained. Thus it comes about that groups face each other in some form of conflict. A social movement, therefore, is not the unnoticed accretion of many unrecognized changes.
Rather, it has the character of an explicit and conscious indictment of whole or part of the social order, together with a conscious demand for change. It also has an ideological component—that is, a set of ideas which specify discontents, prescribe solutions, and justify change.
Directed and undirected movements There is a mixture of formal association and informal, diffuse behavior encompassed in the concept of a movement. The directed segment of a movement is characterized by organized and structured groups with specific programs, a formal leadership structure, definitive ideology, and stated objectives.
Its followers are members of an organization as well as partisans to a belief. The undirected phase of a movement is characterized by the reshaping of perspectives, norms, and values which occurs in the interaction of persons apart from a specific associational context.
The followers are partisans but need not be members of any association which advocates the change being studied. For example, the directed segment of the feminist movement consisted of associations that sought to achieve goals of equal rights for women in various areas of American life; in its undirected phase, the movement consisted of a subtle and unreported redefinition of the rights of women in which both men and women played a part.
These two sides to the phenomenon of social movements often lead to diverse emphases among sociological studies. Those which focus on diffuse and undirected action are likely to emphasize those characteristics of movements which are akin to other phenomena of collective behavior and which are often such a striking feature of the early formation of movements and associations.
Crowd and mob action, generalized unrest, and the structure of personal commitment loom large in many studies of the genesis of social movements for example, see Cantril This type of study attempts to analyze the ways in which discontent is made specific in new definitions of rights and privileges, indictments of the existing order, and, finally, in programs for new institutional structures.
Most studies of social movements have been researches into the career of an association, from stages of collective excitement to the activities of formally organized groups. Public policy and private persuasion Directed and undirected segments of social movements affect each other.
As movements arise, grow, and become recognized, they tend to generate public controversy. Uncommitted portions of the society may be polarized into partisan support on the one hand and resistant opposition on the other. The Negro civil rights movement in the United States during the s transformed a relatively quiescent white population into resisters and supporters of civil rights.
Even where organizational membership is lacking, people take positions and adjust their behavior in response to new expectations. Social movements may be distinguished according to whether they seek to achieve their goals through public policy or private persuasion.
A movement may work toward the goal of effective change in the rules of government or other institutions.
For example, the Townsend movement sought to gain legislation affecting the welfare of the aged Holtzmanand the early Methodist sects hoped to reform the Anglican church Niebuhr Other movements have concentrated on persuading individuals to a line of action and have ignored the use of public institutions as agents of control.
Religious movements are more likely to seek converts than new legislation.
Even in the American temperance movement the early stages were marked by efforts to persuade individuals to abstain Gusfieldchapter 2. Belief and politicization Although movements may, and often do, utilize both public policy and personal persuasion, it is important to recognize that they may shift their emphasis from one to the other.
The ways in which movements become politicized is thus one of the important problems in the field. The religious expression of discontent may substitute for political expression Lipsetpp. The contrary trend is also found; for instance, studies of millennial movements in Melanesia show that religious movements are capable of turning into nationalistic political rebellions Worsley But while the movement is often carried by associations, it is not wholly an associational phenomenon.
It is in the system of generalized beliefs, and in partisan commitment to such beliefs, that we find the characterizing features of a social movement.
This is what distinguishes a social movement from other types of special interest associations and from those hostile outbreaks and expressive protests which do not develop into explicit demands for a changed society.
Social change and the social base A major hypothesis in the field is that social movements are the products of social change. Circumstances arise in which long established relationships are no longer appropriate; the result of this strain between old and new is discontent.The Negro civil rights movement in the United States during the s transformed a relatively quiescent white population into resisters and supporters of civil rights.
Even where organizational membership is lacking, people take positions and adjust their behavior in response to new expectations. Harper Lee: Country: United States: Language: English: Genre: Southern Gothic, Bildungsroman: This sentimentalism can be seen in Lee's representation of the Southern caste system to explain almost every character's behavior in the novel.
Racism in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird. Use this CliffsNotes To Kill a Mockingbird Study Guide today to ace your next test! Get free homework help on Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird: book summary, chapter summary and analysis, quotes, essays, and character analysis courtesy of CliffsNotes.
In To Kill a Mockingbird, author Harper Lee uses memorable characters to explore Civil Rights . Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative white Democratic -dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period, the laws were enforced until Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird: Racism, Discrimination, Social class.
He is representative of the outcast in society throughout the United States. But in reality, there are Tom Robinson’s in all of our neighborhoods or communities, whether they are black or white.
Lee is trying to explain to her readers that there are many. Culture of the United States. (including attitudes toward racism) between the Southern United States and the North. Though the issue of slavery was settled by the war, racism and discrimination persisted and were supported by laws in some Southern states.
Combined with determined civil rights activism, later wars resulted in profound.