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Social Movements Sociological Research: Designs, Methods Sociologists use many different designs and methods to study society and social behavior.
Case study research In case study research, an investigator studies an individual or small group of individuals with an unusual condition or situation. Case studies are typically clinical in scope. On the positive side, case studies obtain useful information about individuals and small groups.
On the negative side, they tend to apply only to individuals with similar characteristics rather than to the general population. The high likelihood of the investigator's biases affecting subjects' responses limits the generalizability of this method.
Survey research Survey research involves interviewing or administering questionnaires, or written surveys, to large numbers of people. The investigator analyzes the data obtained from surveys to learn about similarities, differences, and trends.
He or she then makes predictions about the population being studied. As with most research methods, survey research brings both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include obtaining information from a large number of respondents, conducting personal interviews at a time convenient for respondents, and acquiring data as inexpensively as possible.
Disadvantages of survey research include volunteer bias, interviewer bias, and distortion. Volunteer bias occurs when a sample of volunteers is not representative of the general population. Subjects who are willing to talk about certain topics may answer surveys differently than those who are not willing to talk.
Interviewer bias occurs when an interviewer's expectations or insignificant gestures for example, frowning or smiling inadvertently influence a subject's responses one way or the other.
Distortion occurs when a subject does not respond to questions honestly. Observational research Because distortion can be a serious limitation of surveys, observational research involves directly observing subjects' reactions, either in a laboratory called laboratory observation or in a natural setting called naturalistic observation.
Observational research reduces the possibility that subjects will not give totally honest accounts of the experiences, not take the study seriously, fail to remember, or feel embarrassed. Observational research has limitations, however.
Subject bias is common, because volunteer subjects may not be representative of the general public.
Individuals who agree to observation and monitoring may function differently than those who do not. They may also function differently in a laboratory setting than they do in other settings. Correlational research A sociologist may also conduct correlational research.
These factors can be characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, or events. Correlational research attempts to determine if a relationship exists between the two variables, and the degree of that relationship.
A social researcher can use case studies, surveys, interviews, and observational research to discover correlations. In a negative correlation, one variable increases as the other decreases. In a nonexistent correlation, no relationship exists between the variables.
People commonly confuse correlation with causation. When a correlation exists, changes in the value of one variable reflect changes in the value of the other.Six of the most popular sociological research methods (procedures) are the case study, survey, observational, correlational, experimental, and cross‐cultural methods, as acquiring data as inexpensively as possible.
“Mail‐in” surveys have the added advantage of. TPSYCH Introduction to Psychology (5) I&S Surveys major areas of psychological science, including human social behavior, personality, psychological disorders and treatment, learning, memory, human development, biological influences, and research methods.
Related topics may include sensation. Introduction to Sociology/Sociological Methods. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world data collection and hypothesis testing, . Non-numerical data from a sociological study, like membership If a researcher used identical methods and produced the same r How true data is for a sample.
Sociology, as we have discussed earlier, is also a science. It would also therefore, use certain methods by which sociological facts could be collected, analysed and put into proper form and certain conclusions drawn from them.
The Basic Content of a Research Proposal: In general, a research proposal attempts to describe the plan for a specific research project in a way that other scholars find worthy.