Exclusive breastfeeding to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity Biological, behavioural and contextual rationale WHO technical staff September The positive impact of breastfeeding on lowering the risk of death from infectious diseases in the first two years of life is now well-established 1. A mounting body of evidence suggests that breastfeeding may also play a role in programming noncommunicable disease risk later in life including protection against overweight and obesity in childhood While the precise pathways underlying the potential protective effect of breastfeeding on overweight and obesity remain unknown, several plausible mechanisms have been proposed.
Information sources included the primary research literature in public health, medicine, allied health, psychology, sociology, education, and transportation; reports, position statements, and other resources e. To begin the process of identifying the primary literature in this field, the IOM staff at the beginning of the study conducted general bibliographic searches on topics related to prevention interventions of obesity in children and youth.
These references approximately 1, citations were categorized and annotated by the staff and reference lists of key citations were provided to the committee.
After examining the initial search and identifying key indexing terms in each of the databases, a comprehensive search strategy was designed in consultation with librarians at the George E. Library of the National Academies. To maximize retrieval, the search strategy incorporated synonymous terms on the topics of obesity, overweight, or body weight; dietary patterns including breastfeeding ; and physical activity including exercise, recreation, physical fitness, or physical education and training.
The searches were limited to English language and targeted to retrieve citations related to infants, children, or youth less than 18 years of age.
The searches were not limited by date of publication. This broad search resulted in over 40, citations. Subsequent analysis of the resulting database focused on resources published since approximately 19, citations.
Production of these records in electronic form began inbut the database covers materials in all formats, including printed works from the 15th century.
As the study progressed, additional focused searches were conducted. Topics of these searches included prevention of obesity in adults primarily meta-analyses and reviews ; prevention interventions focused on co-morbidities of obesity in children i.
Additional references were identified by reviewing the reference lists found in major review articles, key reports, prominent websites, and relevant textbooks. Committee members, workshop presenters, consultants, and IOM staff also supplied references. The committee maintained the reference list in a searchable database that was indexed to allow searches by keywords, staff annotations, type of literature e.
After indexing the citations, subject bibliographies were developed for the committee on topics including definition and measurement of childhood obesity and overweight; correlates and determinants breastfeeding, dietary patterns, physical activity, television viewing, etc.
Bibliographies were updated throughout the study and committee members requested the full text of journal articles and other resources as needed for their information and analysis.4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Due to the skyrocketing number of cases of obesity in adults and in children, it is considered to be a major public health concern in the United States (Niehoff, ).
The purpose of this review was to consolidate and highlight the recent literature on the comorbidities associated with childhood obesity, both nationally and internationally. Methods PubMed and PsychINFO searches were conducted on childhood obesity and co-morbidities.
childhood overweight and obesity in Qatar. Only a total of eight research studies were applicable to this literature review, with some studies focusing on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and. Obesity is a substantial public health crisis in the United States, and internationally, with the prevalence increasing rapidly in numerous industrialized nations.
 A report from the National Center for Health Statistics stated that in US individuals aged 20 years or older, the prevalence of obesity rose steadily from % in to % for the period January-September of this literature review is to investigate obesity within the intellectual disability population.
The World Health Organisation () states that “obesity is a condition of Health and Children reported that from to there was a % increase in the. Overweight and Obesity in Children: A Review of the Literature 7 • Children and obesity • Children and overweight This search yielded over articles, from which those deemed to be most relevant to the prevention and management of childhood overweight and obesity in the United Kingdom were selected.