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Public healthcare[ edit ] Public healthcare is free for those,who are below the poverty line. Consequently, the majority of the public healthcare system catering to the rural and remote areas relies on inexperienced and unmotivated interns who are mandated to spend time in public healthcare clinics as part of their curricular requirement.
Other major reasons are distance of the public sector facility, long wait times, and inconvenient hours of operation. Scholars state that the government has a responsibility to provide health services that are affordable, adequate, new and acceptable for its citizens.
Many citizens rely on subsidized healthcare. Provision would be through private providers. However, there currently exists a huge gap between these factors, leading to a collapsed system with insufficient access to healthcare. Rural areas[ edit ] Rural areas in India have a shortage of medical professionals.
The lack of human resources causes citizens to resort to fraudulent or ignorant providers. Ramu, published in the International Journal of Health specifically compared the willingness of people to pay for various health care services in rural versus urban districts of Tamil Nadu.
Private doctors tend to be specialized in a specific field so they reside in urban areas where there is a higher market and financial ability for those services. The poor pay a disproportionately higher percent of their income towards out-of-pocket expenses than the rich.
Without outreach, services cannot be spread to distant locations. The journal states that universal healthcare should slowly yet steadily be expanded to the entire population. Healthcare should be mandatory and no money should be exchanged at appointments.
Fair Price shops which aim to reduce the costs of medications and treatment options; Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana which reimburses those under the poverty line ; and National Rural Telemedicine Network which assists with non-medical costs.
This initiative was analyzed in the states of Maharashtra and West Bengal. Currently, there is no competition between pharmacies and medical service stores for the sale of drugs.
The program has a minimal cost for the government as fair price shops take the place of drugstores at government hospitals, thus eliminating the need to create new infrastructure for fair price shops.
By the end of the year, there were 93 stores benefiting 85 lakh people. From December to Novemberthese shops had saved crore citizens. This is a solution to affordability for health access in West Bengal. Those in the outskirts of villages tend to use the service less than those who live in the center of villages.
They assist in filling the gap between outreach and affordability in India. The NRHM has outreach strategies for disadvantaged societies in isolated areas. For example, even with the mission, most construction of health related infrastructure occurs in urban cities.
It plans for small municipal governments to take responsibility for planning healthcare facilities that are prioritized towards the urban poor, including unregistered slums and other groups. PM-JAY Provides insurance cover up to Rs 5 lakh per annum to the million families in India for secondary and tertiary hospitalization.
The comprehensive list of services is available on the website. The United Nations estimates that million people will live in Indian cities and towns by The sample for West Bengal was too small for analysis of under-five mortality rate. In Uttar Pradesh was four times that of the rest of the urban populations in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
In Madhya Pradesh, the under-five mortality rate among its poorest quartile was more than three times that of the rest of its urban population. Less than a quarter of mothers within the poorest quartile received adequate maternity care in Bihar 12 percentand Uttar Pradesh 20 percent ,and less than half in Madhya Pradesh 38 percentDelhi 41 percentRajasthan 42 percentand Jharkhand 48 percent.
Availing three or more ante-natal check-ups during pregnancy among the poorest quartile was better in West Bengal 71 percentMaharashtra 73 percent.Under this system, health care insurers, including Medicare and Medicaid, pay doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers separately for different items and services furnished to a patient.
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