Humans have been genetically modifying plants for thousands of years. Open pollinated OP seeds are seeds that are produced from cross-pollinating two of the same variety of plant, usually by wind, birds or insects, resulting in plants that are very similar, but naturally varied. Open pollinated seed saving is the oldest of the three methods of producing seed. Gardeners and farmers have been carefully isolating, selecting and replanting open pollinated seed varieties that have beneficial traits like drought tolerance or good flavor for as long as we have been doing agriculture.
Donna Shalala, et al. I reside at [ ] Leeds, UK. I earned both a B. I have been on Emeritus status since I am an expert in food safety issues, and my background makes me especially qualified to assess the potential risks of genetically engineered food products.
I served four years on a U. This book has been translated into Japanese and Polish. In addition, I have written over articles published in standard scientific journals and attended and spoken at numerous scientific conferences both in the U. A list of my publications and honors is attached.
InI anticipated that there could be serious health risks to the British cattle and human populations from the practice of feeding cattle rendered meat from sheep and other animals. I published my warnings in Food Microbiology, In this article, I explained the nature of the malady that could result.
This was the first prediction of what eventually became the "mad cow" epidemic in the United Kingdom.
Unfortunately, the governmental authorities were slow to respond to my warning. Had they properly assessed and acted upon the information I presented, much hardship would have been avoided, and the citizens would not have been subjected to as high a degree of risk.
Because of the long latency period between exposure to the infectious agent and development of symptoms, there is a potential for widespread incidence of infection within the British public over the next forty years.
It is my considered judgment that employing the process of recombinant DNA technology genetic engineering in producing new plant varieties entails a set of risks to the health of the consumer that are not ordinarily presented by traditional breeding techniques.
It is also my considered judgment that food products derived from such genetically engineered organisms are not generally recognized as safe on the basis of scientific procedures within the community of experts qualified to assess their safety.
Paragraphs 6 through 10 explain why these new foods entail higher risks, and paragraphs 12 through 15 explain why none of them is generally recognized as safe.
Recombinant DNA technology is an inherently risky method for producing new foods. Its risks are in large part due to the complexity and interdependency of the parts of a living system, including its DNA. Wedging foreign genetic material in an essentially random manner into an organism's genome necessarily causes some degree of disruption, and the disruption could be multi-faceted.
Further, whether singular or multi-faceted, the disruptive influence could well result in the presence of unexpected toxins or allergens or in the degradation of nutritional value. Further, because of the complexity and interactivity of living systems -- and because of the extent to which our understanding of them is still quite deficient -- it is impossible to predict what specific problems could result in the case of any particular genetically engineered organism.
Prediction is even more difficult because even when dealing with one variety of a food-producing organism and one particular set of foreign genetic material, each insertion event is unique and can yield deeply different results.
The mechanics and risks of recombinant DNA technology are substantially different from those of natural methods of breeding. The latter are typically based on sexual reproduction between organisms of the same or closely related species.
Normally, entire sets of genes are paired in an orderly manner that maintains a fixed sequence of genetic information. Every gene remains under the control of the organism's intricately balanced regulatory system.
The substances produced by the genes are those that have been within the species for a long stretch of biological time. In cases where mating is between closely related species, there is generally close correspondence between the substances produced by each. In contrast, biotechnicians take cells that are the result of normal reproduction and randomly splice a chunk of foreign genetic material into their genome.
This always disturbs the function of the region of native DNA into which the material wedges. Further, the foreign genes will usually not express within their new environment without a big artificial boost, which is supplied by fusing them to promoters from viruses or pathogenic bacteria.
As a result, these genes operate essentially as independent agents outside the host organism's regulatory system, which can lead to many deleterious imbalances. Moreover, this unregulated activity produces substances that have never been in the host species before and are usually very different from any that have -- which could lead to problems even if production were at a low rather than a high level.Visit the What is GMO page for more information and a list of high-risk crops.
Are GMOs safe?
A growing body of evidence connects GMOs with health problems, environmental damage, and violation of farmers’ and consumers’ rights.
Genetically modified organisms -- plants and animals whose genes have been changed by scientists -- aren't just thought over, they're fought over. The world we live in can be surreal, so we need to be involved and aware, and vote with your dollars!) Sixty countries have banned or limited GMO imports, but the U.S.
Government has bought into the claims of the “research” presented to them, and guess what, Monsanto paid for (and cherry-picked) the research.
The articles in this 'GMO Issues' section of the Say No To GMOs!
site were originally posted many years ago but they still provide some of the most relevant and germinal analysis available. There are other labels as well, and you should be able to trust packages that say they are GMO-free, but these are the three most popular certifications to look for: Forget the PLU Numbers!
The PLU numbers won’t help you.
GMO Foods What are we eating? Ever hear of GMO – genetically modified organisms? A lot of you are most likely wondering what these are or have never even heard of them.