Learning Principles Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning.
Provide an overview of the importance of HAIs in a manner commensurate with their educational level using as many pictorial illustrations as is feasible.
Explain their role in improving patient safety through optimized hygienic practice.
Review specific terminal room cleaning practice expectations. Discuss the manner in which their practice will be evaluated. For Level II programs, a participatory demonstration of the monitoring method is very useful.
Provide them with information from the baseline evaluation emphasizing or possibly exclusively showing them results for those objects which have been most thoroughly cleaned Level II.
Stress the non-punitive nature of the program. Inform them that their good performance will be broadly recognized i. Many hospitals have provided a small possibly ES staff-language specific pictorial booklet to the environmental services personnel at the conclusion of the presentation which is Evaluating teaching practice developed to be language skill appropriate.
ES managers — As senior managers will be actively involved in the design and implementation of either Level I or Level II programs, educational interventions for them will need to be customized. While many of Evaluating teaching practice individuals have an excellent understanding of the basic policies and procedures involved in terminal room cleaning, most will benefit from focused educational interventions related to our evolving understanding of the role of the environment in healthcare-associated pathogen HAP transmission.
Evaluation of mid-level managers also needs to be customized. Most importantly, the impact of the program on mid-level ES managers needs to be monitored since additional formal and informal education is frequently needed for those individuals who are somewhat unsure of the importance of developing programmatic approaches to optimize terminal room cleaning.
Other groups — Given the overall importance of optimizing the thoroughness of hygienic practice in healthcare settings, hospital specific educational interventions graphically illustrating the impact of the program should be considered for both Level I and Level II programs.
Appendix B Objective Methods for Evaluating Environmental Hygiene In considering implementation of a Level II program, the advantages and limitations of various monitoring approaches must be considered carefully. The factors which distinguish each approach to Level II monitoring are discussed below and summarized in Fig.
With any method or methods used it is important that neither the system itself fluorescent marker nor its use precleaning cultures or ATP measurements induce a Hawthorne type effect.
Direct Practice Observation — Covert monitoring of disinfection cleaning can provide an objective assessment of individual ES staff performance and compliance with cleaning protocols. This approach has been used to objectively evaluate and improve ICU environmental hygiene in one hospital.
Furthermore, the complexity of monitoring cleaning practice in individual patient rooms without the evaluator being recognized as such might represent a difficult confounding issue. Swab Cultures — While several outbreak intervention studies have associated decreased environmental contamination by target organisms as a result of modified cleaning practice leading to decreased acquisition of targeted pathogens, none of the reports specifically note if serial environmental culture results were actually used to provide practice feedback to the ES staff.
Although swab cultures are easy to use, the cost of processing, including isolate identification, the delay in analyzing results, the need to determine pre-cleaning levels of contamination for each object evaluated in order to accurately assess cleaning practice, and the limited feasibility of monitoring multiple surfaces in multiple patient rooms as part of an ongoing Level II monitoring program represent issues which could limit the broad application of this system.
Agar Slide Cultures — Agar coated glass slides with finger holds were developed to simplify quantitative cultures of liquids. The slides have been adopted for use in environmental surface monitoring in healthcare settings. Although some difficulties have been encountered in utilizing the agar slide cultures on other than large, flat surfaces, they potentially provide an easy method for quantifying viable microbial surface contamination.
There is a need, similar to that noted above for swab cultures, to determine pre-cleaning levels of contamination for each object evaluated in order to accurately assess cleaning practice.
Fluorescent Markers — Fluorescent gel, powder, and lotion have all been developed for the purpose of marking high touch objects prior to room cleaning. While the powder and lotion have been used as part of educational interventions, their overt visibility lotions and powderease with which they can be disturbed powderand difficulty with easy removal lotion if allowed to air dry may limit their use in a monitoring system and there is little or no published experience in their use for this purpose.
In contrast, the fluorescent gel dries transparent on surfaces, resists abrasion, and there are several studies demonstrating the accuracy of the system in objectively evaluating cleaning practice and quantifying the impact of educational interventions on such cleaning.Evaluating Teaching: A Guide to Current Thinking and Best Practice [James H.
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Fenway Library Organization Catalog for books, ebooks, media, and the Teaching Resource Center; Databases that include eBooks, dissertations, theses, reports, trade publications, and reference materials; Journals that contain both peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed content; Streaming Media for research and classroom use; SEARCH searches through the library resources listed above, but has .
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