History of Technology Heroes and Villains - A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
Yet if one takes a deeper look one will actually find a mycelium of scientists, artists, writers, hippies and freethinkers who were at some point shaped by psychedelics. What follows here is the story of these often captivating characters and their activities.
However, there is more to Sweden than mass-produced furniture, pop music and a legendary filmmaker.
Considerably less well-known is the history of Swedish psychedelia, and this text is an attempt at portraying this subculture.
The Swedish flora consists of several psychoactive mushrooms and plants. The fly agaric mushroom Amanita muscaria often grows in abundance in the Swedish woods, and the royal fly agaric, also known as the king of Sweden Amanita Amanita regalisis common in many parts of the country.
In addition, the liberty cap Psilocybe semilanceata can be found growing in meadows and lawns. When it comes to plants, species belonging to the Solanaceae family, commonly known as nightshades, may be encountered in the wild. The plant encyclopedia Den nordiska floran lit.
Hemp plants Cannabaceae are also part of the Swedish landscape, and even though it is rarely seen, Cannabis sativa may be found growing in railway yards, in harbours and in abandoned places. To what extent these mushrooms and plants have been used for the purpose of intoxication over the course of history in Sweden is very hard to establish.
As for pre-Christian life in Scandinavia, very little is known when it comes to the use of psychoactives.
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It is generally believed that the Solanacea plants where used for their psychoactive properties by pagans, and archaeological findings have revealed links between plant drugs and Norse paganism. Or did the seeds found by the archaeologists have other meanings? Either way, the seeds were important enough to be placed in graves, suggesting their properties had great value.
The embryonic days of the history of Swedish psychedelia consist of several anecdotal yet important events that took place from the eighteenth century and onwards. They may seem like minor occurrences, but they are nevertheless part of the somewhat scattered collage that constitutes Swedish psychedelic culture.
The first known example of a Swede to encounter psychedelics during this era was Philip Johan von Strahlenberg, an officer and geographer who made important contributions to the cartography of Russia.
InStrahlenberg was captured by Russian forces during the Battle of Poltava. He became a prisoner of war and was sent to Tobolk where he came in contact with its indigenous peoples. Originally written in German, the book contains descriptions of Siberians consuming tea made from the fly agaric during shamanic rituals.
InLinnaeus included the fly agaric, arguably the most visually iconic of all psychedelic fungi, in his Species Plantarum Vol. Interestingly, it was another Swede, Carl Linnaeus, who first described the fly agaric. Linnaeus, a botanist, physician and zoologist known as the founder of modern taxonomy, classified thousands of plants and animals during his lifetime.
The botanist, writing in Latin, named it Agaricus muscarius. Linneaus also described and named the aforementioned Hyoscyamus niger, Scopolia carniolica, Datura stramonium, Atropa belladonna and Cannabis sativa. The previously mentioned royal fly agaric resembles the fruit body of the fly agaric.
Fries also described another psychedelic mushroom: In his book Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici, the mycologist named the species Agaricus Semilanceatus. However, inGerman minister, teacher and scientist Paul Kummer transferred it to the genus Psilocybe, hence its current name, Psilocybe semilanceata.
Instead, they belonged to the South and Central American flora.slightly amended form in Essays in Swedish History (London, ), pp.
, with some additional material on pp.
– Google Scholar. 6. Geoffrey Parker, ‘The “Military Revolution, –” — a Myth?’, in his Spain and The Netherlands, – Catalog Record: Essays in Swedish history | Hathi Trust Digital Library Navigation.
Home; About. Essays in Swedish history. When discussing Swedish psychedelia in the twenty-first century, one cannot fail to mention the influential work of Swedish psychedelic researcher Patrick Lundborg ().
Prior to the s, he was mostly known for being a prolific music writer. One of several processional crosses that were among the items looted during the British campaign in Ethiopia in (Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum).