It was written in response to a request from the committee as part of its investigation into prewar intelligence claims made by the administration. Intelligence reporting included in the page memo comes from a variety of domestic and foreign agencies, including the FBI, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. Much of the evidence is detailed, conclusive, and corroborated by multiple sources. Some of it is new information obtained in custodial interviews with high-level al Qaeda terrorists and Iraqi officials, and some of it is more than a decade old.
Multisensory integration Save Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalitiessuch as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.
Indeed, multisensory integration is central to adaptive behavior because it allows us to perceive a world of coherent perceptual entities. General introduction Multimodal perception is a scientific term that describes how humans form coherent, valid, and robust perception by processing sensory stimuli from various modalities.
Surrounded by multiple objects and receiving multiple sensory stimulations, the brain is faced with the decision of how to categorize the stimuli resulting from different objects or events in the physical world.
The nervous system is thus responsible for whether to integrate or segregate certain groups of temporally coincident sensory signals based on the degree of spatial and structural congruence of those stimulations. Multimodal perception has been widely studied in 140812 essay science, behavioral science, and neuroscience.
Stimuli and sensory modalities There are four attributes of stimulus: The neocortex in the mammalian brain has parcellations that primarily process sensory input from one modality. For example, primary visual area, V1, or primary somatosensory area, S1. These areas mostly deal with low-level stimulus features such as brightness, orientation, intensity, etc.
These areas have extensive connections to each other as well as to higher association areas that further process the stimuli and are believed to integrate sensory input from various modalities.
However, recently multisensory effects have been shown to occur in primary sensory areas as well. The binding problem stemmed from unanswered questions about how mammals particularly higher primates generate a unified, coherent perception of their surroundings from the cacophony of electromagnetic waveschemical interactions, and pressure fluctuations that forms the physical basis of the world around us.
It was investigated initially in the visual domain colour, motion, depth, and formthen in the auditory domain, and recently in the multisensory areas.
It can be said therefore, that the binding problem is central to multisensory perception. It is obviously important for the senses to interact in order to maximize how efficiently people interact with the environment.
For perceptual experience and behavior to benefit from the simultaneous stimulation of multiple sensory modalities, integration of the information from these modalities is necessary.
Some of the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon and its subsequent effects on cognitive and behavioural processes will be examined hereafter. Perception is often defined as one's conscious experience, and thereby combines inputs from all relevant senses and prior knowledge. Perception is also defined and studied in terms of feature extraction, which is several hundred milliseconds away from conscious experience.
Notwithstanding the existence of Gestalt psychology schools that advocate a holistic approach to the operation of the brain, the physiological processes underlying the formation of percepts and conscious experience have been vastly understudied.
Nevertheless, burgeoning neuroscience research continues to enrich our understanding of the many details of the brain, including neural structures implicated in multisensory integration such as the superior colliculus SC  and various cortical structures such as the superior temporal gyrus GT and visual and auditory association areas.
Although the structure and function of the SC are well known, the cortex and the relationship between its constituent parts are presently the subject of much investigation. Concurrently, the recent impetus on integration has enabled investigation into perceptual phenomena such as the ventriloquism effect, rapid localization of stimuli and the McGurk effect ; culminating in a more thorough understanding of the human brain and its functions.
History Studies of sensory processing in humans and other animals has traditionally been performed one sense at a time, and to the present day, numerous academic societies and journals are largely restricted to considering sensory modalities separately 'Vision Research''Hearing Research' etc.
However, there is also a long and parallel history of multisensory research. An example is the Stratton's experiments on the somatosensory effects of wearing vision-distorting prism glasses. They were reviewed by Hartmann in a fundamental book where, among several references to different types of multisensory interactions, reference is made to the work of Urbantschitsch in  who reported on the improvement of visual acuity by auditive stimuli in subjects with damaged brain.Oberon Council - Agenda and Business Papers – Ordinary Meeting – 20 May 49 | Page WORKS COMMITTEE MEETING – 13 MAY File: Governance/Meetings/Works Committee Author: Sharon Swannell, Executive Assistant Summary Providing details of the Works Committee meeting held on 13 May Recommendation: 1.
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